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One of the main goals of psychology is to explore the concept of meaning as it is understood by human beings. meaning can be defined as the significance or purpose of something, or the connection between an individual and their environment (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d.). meaning is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that involves cognitive, emotional, and motivational aspects, and can vary across different contexts and cultures (Baumeister, Vohs, Aaker, & Garbinsky, 2013).

Psychologists have proposed various theories and models to explain how people construct and experience meaning in their lives. For example, Frankl (1959) suggested that meaning is derived from three sources: creating a work or doing a deed, experiencing something or encountering someone, and the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering.

Seligman (2002) proposed that meaning is one of the five elements of wellbeing, along with Positive emotion, engagement, relationships, and accomplishment. He defined meaning as belonging to and serving something that is bigger than oneself. Wong (2012) developed a meaning-Centered approach to counselling and therapy, based on the premise that meaning is the primary motivator of human behaviour and the key to resilience and flourishing.

Psychologists have also developed various methods and tools to measure and assess meaning in different domains of life, such as work, relationships, spirituality, and health. For example, Steger, Frazier, Oishi, and Kaler (2006) created the meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), which consists of two scales: presence of meaning (the degree to which one feels that their life has meaning) and search for meaning (the degree to which one is looking for meaning in their life). Another example is the Sources of meaning and meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe), which measures 26 sources of meaning that people can endorse, such as self-acceptance, love, altruism, creativity, etc. (Schnell & Becker, 2006).

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meaning is an important topic for psychology because it has implications for various aspects of human functioning and wellbeing. Research has shown that having a sense of meaning in life is associated with positive outcomes such as happiness, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, coping, resilience, and physical health (Martela & Steger, 2016).

On the other hand, lack of meaning or existential crisis can lead to negative outcomes such as depression, anxiety, hopelessness, suicide, substance abuse, and violence (Wong & Tomer, 2011). Therefore, understanding how people find and maintain meaning in their lives can help psychologists design interventions and programs that can enhance people’s wellbeing and quality of life.

meaning according to Viktor Frankl

One of the most influential thinkers on the meaning of life was Viktor Frankl, a psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor who developed a school of psychotherapy called logotherapy. Frankl’s main idea was that humans are motivated by a “will to meaning”, that is, a desire to find a purpose and significance in their existence. Frankl argued that meaning can be discovered in three different ways: by creating a work or doing a deed, by experiencing something or encountering someone, or by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering (Frankl, 2006).

Frankl illustrated his concept of meaning with examples from his own life and from his observations of other prisoners in Nazi concentration camps. He wrote that even in the most horrific circumstances, some people were able to find meaning and hope by helping others, by remembering their loved ones, or by finding a sense of dignity and transcendence in their suffering. Frankl quoted Nietzsche’s famous saying: “He who has a why to live for can bear almost any how” (Frankl, 2006, p. 104). He also cited examples of people who found meaning in their work, such as artists, scientists, or teachers, or in their relationships, such as friends, family, or partners.

Frankl’s theory of meaning has been widely applied and tested in various fields of psychology, such as positive psychology, existential psychology, and clinical psychology. Many studies have shown that finding meaning in life is associated with higher levels of wellbeing, happiness, resilience, and health (Batthyany & Russo-Netzer, 2014). Frankl’s legacy of meaning continues to inspire and challenge people to search for their own unique way of contributing to the world and fulfilling their potential.

meaning according to Seligman

One of the main concepts in positive psychology is meaning, which refers to the sense of purpose and direction that gives coherence and significance to one’s life. According to Seligman (2012), meaning is one of the five elements of wellbeing, along with Positive emotion, engagement, relationships, and accomplishment. Seligman defines meaning as “belonging to and serving something that you believe is bigger than the self” (p. 17). He argues that meaning is not something that we find or discover, but rather something that we create by using our unique strengths and virtues in the service of a greater cause.

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Some examples of sources of meaning are religion, spirituality, family, community, social justice, art, science, or nature. Seligman suggests that we can cultivate meaning by identifying our signature strengths and applying them to a domain that transcends our personal interests. For instance, someone who has a strength of curiosity might find meaning in exploring new cultures or learning new languages. Someone who has a strength of kindness might find meaning in volunteering for a charity or helping others in need.

Seligman also emphasizes the importance of having a coherent narrative of one’s life that connects the past, present, and future. He proposes that we can enhance our sense of meaning by reflecting on our life story and finding themes, patterns, and values that shape our identity and goals. He encourages us to write down our life story and revise it as we grow and change.

meaning is not only beneficial for our wellbeing, but also for our resilience and performance. Seligman cites research that shows that people who have a high sense of meaning are more likely to cope well with stress, adversity, and trauma. They are also more likely to be motivated, engaged, and productive in their work and personal lives.

meaning is a vital component of wellbeing that can be cultivated by using our strengths and virtues for a higher purpose, and by creating a coherent narrative of our life. As Seligman (2002) states: “The meaningful life adds one more component to the good life: using your signature strengths in the service of something larger than you are” (p. 263).

meaning according to Wong

One of the prominent psychologists who explored the concept of meaning is Paul T. P. Wong, who developed a pluralistic and integrative meaning therapy based on Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy. Wong (1989) defines personal meaning as “a socially and individually constructed system, which endows life with personal significance” (p. 15). This meaning system includes five components: affective, motivational, cognitive, relational, and personal (i.e., personal characteristics and status in life) (Wong, 1998).

According to Wong (1998), meaning in life consists of both situational meaning and existential meaning. Situational meaning refers to the subjective appraisal of specific events or circumstances, while existential meaning refers to the global beliefs and values that guide one’s life choices and actions. Wong (1998) proposes that meaning in life can be enhanced by four sources: purpose, understanding, responsibility, and enjoyment. These sources correspond to Frankl’s (1985) three values of creative, experiential, and attitudinal.

Wong (1998) also suggests that meaning in life can be discovered or created through four modes of meaning-seeking: reflective, reactive, projective, and proactive. Reflective mode involves self-examination and introspection to uncover one’s authentic self and core values. Reactive mode involves responding to external challenges or opportunities with courage and resilience. Projective mode involves imagining and envisioning a preferred future or a higher purpose. Proactive mode involves taking action and making commitment to realize one’s goals and aspirations.

To illustrate the concept of meaning as it is understood by Wong, let us consider an example of a person who has lost his job due to the pandemic. He may experience a loss of meaning and wellbeing due to the negative impact of unemployment on his financial security, self-esteem, and social relationships.

However, he may also use this crisis as an opportunity to reflect on his life direction and values, to react with optimism and hope, to project a new career path or a meaningful project, and to proactively seek new skills or resources to achieve his desired outcomes. In this way, he may be able to restore or enhance his sense of meaning and wellbeing by engaging in the four sources and modes of meaning-seeking proposed by Wong.

Differences between Wong’s concept of meaning and that of others

Wong, Page, and Cheung (2021), highlight important differences between their concept of meaning and that of others, in their publication, “A self-transcendence Model of Servant Leadership”. In this document, the authors explain how self-transcendence, which is the core of existential positive psychology (EPP or PP2.0), is required for implementing servant leadership and integrating the servant leadership literature. They define self-transcendence as “a way of life and a way of overcoming all the inescapable suffering and limitations to achieve enduring happiness and flourishing” (Wong et al., 2021, p. 3).

According to Wong (n.d.), servant leadership is a model of leadership that is based on self-transcendence, spirituality, humility, and serving others for the greater good. Servant leaders seek to achieve organizational goals by developing and unleashing the creative potential of human resources (Wong & Davey, 2007). Servant leadership represents a radical approach – it is humanistic and spiritual rather than rational and mechanistic; it puts workers rather than shareholders at the centre of concentric circles; and it motivates workers primarily through creating a caring and supportive workplace rather than through individual incentive systems (Wong & Davey, 2007). Servant leadership is also predicated on the belief that serving and developing workers is the best way to achieve organizational goals because any company is only as good as its human resources (Wong, n.d.). Servant leadership is biblically based and modelled after Jesus Christ, who exemplified the ultimate servant leader (Wong, Page, & Cheung, n.d.).

The authors point out the important difference between Seligman’s understanding of meaning, and Frankl‘s as well as their own understanding of more profound meaning. They argue that Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model of wellbeing is based on a hedonic approach that focuses on positive emotions and experiences, while Frankl’s (1985) logotherapy is based on an eudaimonic approach that focuses on finding meaning and purpose in life, especially in the face of suffering and death. They also propose that their own EPP or PP2.0 model goes beyond both hedonic and eudaimonic approaches by emphasizing self-transcendence as the key to flourishing in difficult times.

The eudaimonic approach

The eudaimonic approach is a perspective on wellbeing that emphasizes the importance of living in accordance with one’s true nature, character, and virtue, as well as pursuing one’s potential, meaning, and growth (Boniwell, 2008). This approach can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who argued that happiness (eudaimonia) is not a subjective feeling of pleasure (hedonia), but rather a state of being that results from fulfilling one’s purpose and achieving excellence in life (Aristotle, 1985).

According to the eudaimonic approach, wellbeing is not dependent on external circumstances or material goods, but on the intrinsic motivation and self-regulation of individuals who seek to realize their unique talents and capacities (Joseph, 2019). The eudaimonic approach also recognizes the social dimension of wellbeing, as individuals are embedded in a cultural context that provides them with opportunities and resources to pursue their goals and values (SpringerLink, 2021). The eudaimonic approach is therefore a holistic and dynamic view of wellbeing that encompasses both personal and collective aspects of human flourishing.

Seligman’s PERMA model of wellbeing

Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model of wellbeing is a theoretical framework that identifies five key elements that contribute to human flourishing: Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, meaning, and Accomplishment. According to this model, each element is pursued for its own sake and can be measured independently of the others.

Positive emotion refers to the experience of pleasant feelings such as joy, gratitude, love, and satisfaction. Engagement involves being fully absorbed and immersed in an activity that challenges one’s skills and strengths. Relationships are the positive and supportive connections that one has with other people. meaning is the sense of belonging and purpose that one derives from being part of something larger than oneself. Accomplishment is the achievement of personal or collective goals that are valued and rewarding (Seligman, 2011).

The PERMA model is based on the premise that wellbeing is more than just the absence of mental illness or negative emotions. It is a multidimensional construct that encompasses both hedonic (pleasure-based) and eudaimonic (purpose-based) aspects of happiness. The model also suggests that wellbeing can be enhanced by cultivating these five elements in one’s life, either individually or in combination. Research has indicated that the PERMA elements are associated with various positive outcomes, such as improved health, life satisfaction, resilience, creativity, and productivity (Kern et al., 2014; Rusk & Waters, 2015). The PERMA model can be applied in various settings and contexts, such as education, work, health, and community, to promote wellbeing among individuals and groups.

Highlighting the differences

Wong (2021a) proposes an alternative model of existential positive psychology (PP 2.0), which emphasizes the need for self-transcendence in overcoming adversity and pursuing the highest ideals. He draws on Frankl‘s (1985) concept of logotherapy, which is based on the premise that “man’s search for meaning is the primary motivation in his life” (p. 121). Frankl (1985) asserts that meaning can be found in three ways: by creating a work or doing a deed, by experiencing something or encountering someone, and by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering. Wong (2021a) adds a fourth way of finding meaning: by transcending oneself and serving a higher purpose.

To highlight that perspective, Wong, Page, and Cheung (2021), quote Frankl (1985), who said: “What man actually needs is not a tensionless state but rather the striving and struggling for some goal worthy of him. What he needs is not the discharge of tension at any cost, but the call of a potential meaning waiting to be fulfilled by him” (p. 127). They also provide examples of how self-transcendence can be manifested in servant leadership, such as having a vision that transcends one’s own interests, serving others with faith and sacrificial love, and cultivating humility and gratitude.

In addition, Seligman (2002) defines meaning as “belonging to and serving something that you believe is bigger than the self” (p. 263). However, Wong (2021a) argues that this definition is too vague and does not capture the essence of self-transcendence, which is “the motivation to go beyond limitations and obstacles to reach one’s goal” (p. 9). Wong (2021a) also criticizes Seligman’s positive education for being too focused on the ego and ignoring the role of suffering in human flourishing.

To illustrate the difference between Seligman’s and Frankl’s/Wong’s views on meaning, Wong (2021b) uses the example of Viktor Frankl himself, who survived the Nazi concentration camps and found meaning in his suffering by helping others and writing his book Man’s Search for meaning. Wong (2021b) claims that Frankl’s experience “demonstrates that self-transcendence is not only a source of meaning but also a source of resilience and wellbeing” (p. 4). He also cites examples of other people who have flourished through suffering by transcending themselves, such as Nelson Mandela, Mother Teresa, and Martin Luther King Jr.

This highlights the important difference between Seligman’s understanding of meaning, which is based on belonging and serving something bigger than oneself, and Frankl‘s as well as Wong‘s understanding of deep meaning, which is based on transcending oneself and finding a higher purpose in life. Wong argues that self-transcendence is the key to meaning and wellbeing, especially in times of crisis and suffering. He provides quotes and examples from various sources to support his argument and to show how self-transcendence can be applied in different domains of life.

The benefits of finding meaning in one’s life

Finding meaning in one’s life is a vital and rewarding pursuit that can enhance one’s wellbeing, happiness, and resilience. According to research, people who have a sense of meaning and purpose in life tend to have better physical and mental health, lower stress levels, higher self-esteem, and more positive emotions. They also cope better with challenges, adversity, and loss, and are more likely to contribute to society and the world in meaningful ways.

There are many ways to find meaning in life, such as discovering one’s strengths, passions, and values, pursuing one’s goals and dreams, developing meaningful relationships, helping others, expressing one’s creativity, learning new things, exploring spirituality, or simply enjoying the beauty of life. However, finding meaning in life is not a one-time event, but a continuous process that requires reflection, curiosity, and openness to new experiences.

To inspire you on your journey of finding meaning in life, here are some quotes and examples from various sources that highlight the importance and benefits of living a purposeful and meaningful life.

“There is no greater gift you can give or receive than to honor your calling. It’s why you were born. And how you become most truly alive.” – Oprah Winfrey (Winfrey, n.d.)

“The mystery of human existence lies not in just staying alive, but in finding something to live for.” – Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Dostoyevsky, 2004)

“If you can’t figure out your purpose, figure out your passion. For your passion will lead you right into your purpose.” – Bishop T.D. Jakes (Jakes, n.d.)

“The purpose of life is not to be happy. It is to be useful, to be honorable, to be compassionate, to have it make some difference that you have lived and lived well.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson (Emerson, 1870)

“Discovering who you are today is the first step to being who you will be tomorrow.” –Mustapha Lanre Idreez (Idreez, n.d.)

One example of finding meaning in life is the story of Viktor Frankl, a psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor who wrote the influential book Man’s Search for meaning. Frankl developed a theory called logotherapy, which states that the primary motivation of human beings is to find meaning in life. He argued that even in the most horrific circumstances, such as concentration camps, people can still find meaning and hope by choosing their attitude and response to their situation. He wrote: “Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances” (Frankl, 2006).

Another example of finding meaning in life is the story of Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani activist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who survived a Taliban assassination attempt when she was 15 years old. She became a global advocate for girls’ education and human rights, and founded the Malala Fund, a non-profit organization that supports girls’ education around the world. She said: “I tell my story not because it is unique, but because it is the story of many girls” (Yousafzai & Lamb, 2013).

Finding meaning in life is not only beneficial for individuals, but also for society and the world at large. When people live with meaning and purpose, they are more likely to contribute positively to their communities and causes that matter to them. They are also more likely to inspire others to do the same. As Mahatma Gandhi said: “Be the change that you wish to see in the world” (Gandhi, n.d.).

The relationship between meaning and self-transcendence

meaning is not something that we can easily grasp or attain; it often requires us to go beyond our own self-interests and connect with something larger than ourselves. This is the essence of self-transcendence, which can be described as the expansion of the self beyond the individual ego and personal identity (Wong, 2016).

The experience of self-transcendence can take many forms, such as altruism, spirituality, creativity, or appreciation of beauty. It can also involve different levels of transcendence, from the momentary to the ultimate. For example, we can experience self-transcendence by being mindful of the present moment and appreciating the small joys of life, such as a cup of coffee or a sunset (Hicks et al., 2020).

We can also find meaning in life by pursuing a calling or a passion that contributes to the greater good of society or humanity, such as a career, a hobby, or a volunteer work (Wong, 2016). Finally, we can seek ultimate meaning by connecting with a transcendental realm that transcends the physical world and provides us with a sense of awe, wonder, and faith. This can be achieved through religion, spirituality, or philosophy (Wong, 2016).

Finding meaning in life and self-transcendence are closely related concepts that can mutually reinforce each other. As Wong (2016) states: “meaning-seeking is the motivational force for self-transcendence; self-transcendence is the end state of finding meaning” (p. 431). By transcending ourselves, we can discover new sources of meaning that enrich our lives and make us feel more fulfilled. By finding meaning in life, we can motivate ourselves to transcend our limitations and challenges and reach our full potential.

Some quotes and examples that illustrate the relationship between finding meaning in life and self-transcendence are:

“Don’t ask yourself what the world needs; ask yourself what makes you come alive. And then go and do that. Because what the world needs is people who have come alive.” Howard Thurman

“The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.” Albert Einstein

“We are not human beings having a spiritual experience. We are spiritual beings having a human experience.” Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Finding your own meaning

Finding meaning in one’s life is a challenging but rewarding quest that can lead to greater happiness and wellbeing. There are many ways that an individual can find meaning in their life, depending on their values, beliefs and goals. Some common sources of meaning are:

Contributing to a cause or a community that is bigger than oneself. This can involve volunteering, activism, mentoring, or pursuing a career that makes a positive difference in the world.

Developing one’s strengths and talents and using them to achieve personal growth and excellence. This can involve learning new skills, pursuing a passion, or overcoming challenges.

Cultivating authentic and supportive relationships with others who share one’s values and aspirations. This can involve forming friendships, joining groups, or finding a partner who complements one’s personality and vision.

Exploring one’s spirituality and connecting with a higher power or a transcendent reality. This can involve practising a religion, meditating, or engaging in rituals that bring a sense of awe and wonder.

Finding meaning in life is not a one-time event, but a dynamic and ongoing process that requires reflection and action. As Viktor Frankl (1959) wrote: “One should not search for an abstract meaning of life. Everyone has their own specific vocation or mission in life to carry out a concrete assignment which demands fulfillment. Therein he cannot be replaced, nor can his life be repeated. Thus, everyone’s task is as unique as is his specific opportunity to implement it” (p. 131).


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