A superposition of states is a quantum principle that describes how a physical system, such as an electron or a photon, can exist in a combination of two or more possible states at the same time. For example, an electron can be in a superposition of two different locations or velocities, each with a certain probability of being observed. A superposition of states can be represented mathematically as a wave function, which is a sum of the possible states and their corresponding probabilities. The wave function can be used to calculate the expected outcomes of measurements on the system. When a measurement is performed, the system collapses into one of the possible states randomly, according to the Schrödinger equation.

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